Sunday, September 23, 2012

Lab 5: Lower vascular plants and ferns

The objective of this lab is to make you familiar with the basic vegetative and reproductive features of several groups of lower vascular plantas and ferns.  Please read additional information in chapter 8 of the text book.
For this section you are required to know how to distinguish Lycopodiaceae from Selaginellaceae

Family: Lycopodiaceae

Huperzia squarrosa: this is a tropical epiphyte, notice the dichotomous branching pattern

Huperzia nummularifolia

Huperzia phlegmaria
Lycopodiella cernua (left) Lycopodiella appressa (right)

(Left) Lycopodium clavatum (Right) Lycopodium tristachyum: note the well developed strobilii

Diphasiastrum digitatum: note the flattened branches

Family: Selaginellaceae
Selaginella willdenowii

Selaginella sp.

Selaginella erythropus

MONILOPHYTE (ferns and allies)
You are required to know Psilotaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Equisetaceae and from the leptosporangiate ferns Osmundaceae, Cyatheaceae, and Polypodiales.

Family: Ophioglossaceae

Ophioglossum reticulatum

Order: Psilotales

Family: Psilotaceae

Note: dichotomous stem, 3-lobed sporangia and reduced megaphyll leaves
Psilotum nudum

Family: Equisetaceae
Note whorled microphylls (reduced megaphylls) and jointed stems

 Equisetum hyemale
Equisetum scirpoides

Leptosporangiate ferns

Family: Osmundaceae
Observe modified fertile pinnae at the end of the frond rachis (=leaf axis)

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Family: Salviniaceae
Floating aquatic fern, heterosporous

Salvinia minima

Azolla caroliniana

Family: Marsileaceae 
Heterosporous, sporophyte dominant
Marsilea sp.

Family: Cyatheaceae
This is the family of tree ferns

Dicksonia sp.

Family: Dennstaedtiaceae

Family: Pteridaceae
The following species (maidenhair fern) has a false indusium

 Adiantum tenerum

Adiantum hispidulum

Family: Pteridaceae

 Pteris ensiformis

 Acrostichum danaeifolium
Family: Aspleniaceae

Asplenium nidus
Family: Thelypteridaceae

Thelypteris kunthii 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera
Family Blechnaceae
Woodwardia areolata

Family Dryopteridaceae
Note sori and describe the indusium

 Cyrtomium falcatum

 Rumohra adiantiformis

Family: Polypodiaceae

For this leptosporangiated fern we asked you to draw the sorus and the sporangium
Campyloneurum angustifolium

Phlebodium aureum

Pleopeltis polypodioides

Platycerium bifurcatum

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