Monday, October 1, 2012

Lab 7: General structure of fruits, part 2

This lab is a continuation of for fruits.  The objective of it is to enable you to see the structure of fruits of Angiosperms and also to make you familiar with the terminology involved.  You can refer to chapter 4 of the textbook if you need additional information.
Fruits are dispersed by different biotic or abiotic agents, try to think while you work on this lab which is the dispersal agent of these fruits.

Scientific names are detailed underneath the image or group of images.

This is a longitudinal and transverse cut of a grape tomato, you had to draw them and key out the type of fruit
Solanaceae: Solanum lycopersicum

These muscadine grapes have been cut longitudinally and transversely, in the lab you have to draw them and key out , what type of placentation do they have?
Vitaceae: Vitis rotundifolia

These apple slices show you details on the placentation
Rosaceae: Malus pumila

Rutaceae: Citrus

The following sample shows young and ripe fruits and several cuts for you to see the placentation. Think about all the structures that you are observing in these pictures.

Lagerstroemia indica

What do you think disperses these fruits?

Oleaceae: Fraxinus americana

Key out these fruits, understand all the structures
Quercus laurifolia

What fruit type?

Meliaceae: Melia azedarach

Key out this fruit
Cornaceae: Nyssa ogeche

Fruit type?

Sapindaceae: Acer saccharum sbsp. floridanum


This strawberry is an example of an aggregate of achenes, this is also an accesory fruit, why?

Rosaceae: Fragaria sp.

This raspberry is an example of an aggregate of druplets
Rosaceae: Rubus

How many flowers is this derived from? Is this an aggregate or a multiple fruit?
Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus

The follicles open along one side to release seeds (note:seeds have a fleshy seed coat).  Is this a multiple or aggregate fruit? Hint: Comes from one flower

Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora

Aggregate of follicles
 Sterculia foetida
This is an example of a schizocarp
Sida rhombifolia

Peanuts are examples of indehiscent pods

Fabaceae: Arachis hypogaea

This baobab fruits is also an example of an indehiscent pod, it contains many seeds, it is dry and is indehiscent
Malvaceae: Adansonia

What is the fruit type of cherries?
Rosaceae: Prunus sp.

PEPO: a type of berry, how many carpels? Why? Placentation?

Cucurbitaceae: Cucumis sativus

This is an example of an achene, like the ones found in sunflowers

Asteraceae: Helianthus annuus

Is this an example of a caryopsis or grain? How does it differ from an achene?
Poaceae: Zea mays

This is an example of a berry.  Like Citrus (lemon) but the rind is hard instead of leathery
Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos

The following sweetgum fruit is an example of multiple capsules

Altingiaceae: Liquidambar formosana

An example of a septicidal capsule
 Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia
This is an example of a poricidal capsule
 Papaveraceae: Papaver orientale
This is an example of a samara
 Tipuana tipu
This is an example of a legume
Fabaceae: Delonix regia

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