Saturday, November 3, 2012

Lab 11: Malvales, Sapindales, Caryophyllales, and Santalales

Family: Malvaceae
 Key features: slime canals, palmate venation (often), numerous stamens, flowers often wiwth epicalyx, nectar producing hairs packed together at base of sepals

Tilia americana
Note pulvini and pinnate venation
 Theobroma cacao

Cola vera

Sterculia foetida

Ceiba pentandra

Gossypium sp.

Hibiscus shizopetalus

Malvaviscus penduliflorus

Kosteletzkya depressa

Pavonia hastata

Abelmoschus esculentus

Sida acuta
Family: Rutaceae
Key features: pellucid dots with aromatic compounds, leaves pinnately compound or reduced to a trifoliate or unifoliate.Carpel (4-5) completely connate with a single common style, nectar disk present, intrestaminal.

Murraya sp.

Citrus x limon

Citrus x aurantium (sweet orange)

Citrus x aurantifolia (lime)

Citrus japonica

Citrus paradisica (grapefruit group)

Citrus australasica

Agle marmalos

Zanthoxylum fagara

Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)

Glycosma pentaphylla

Family: Anacardiaceae
Key features: vertical resin canals throughout the plant, resins dry black, fruit a drupe

Rhus copalina (winged sumac)

Pistacia chinensis

Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy)

Mangifera indica

 Spondias dulcis

Family: Sapindaceae
Key features: stamen number not twice the number of petals, extrastaminal nectar disk, hairy filaments
Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana
Litchi chinensis
Nephelium sp. (rambutan)

Blighia sapida

Sapindus saponaria

Acer negundo

Acer saccharum ssp. floridanum

Family: Phytolaccaceae
Key features: Inflorescence a raceme,opposite to the leaf
 Phytolacca americana var rigida

Petiveria alliacea

Rivina humilis

Observe the anomalous secondary growth (successive cambia in root = several rings of dividing cells), which can be seen in beets:
Red pigments are BETALINS
Beta vulgaris

Family: Cactaceae
Key characters: spiny stem succulents, shoots differentiated, long shoots producing photosynthetic leaves, short shoots producing a spine or spine cluster.
 Pereskia aculeata

Where are the internodes? Fruit type a BERRY
Red-yellow pigments are BETALINS

 Opuntia stricta (prickly pear)

 Opuntia microdasys

Ferocactus sp.

Ferocactus fortispinus

 Consolea moniliformis

 Harrisia fragans

Hattioria salicornoides

 Epiphyllum oxypetalum

Rhipsalis sp.
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Key characters: opposite leaves with swollen nodes; 5 nothced "petals" (staminodes)
Dianthus sp.

Drymaria cordata 
Family: Polygonaceae
Key characters: alternate leaves with an ocrea (ocrea= stipules fused into a sheath around the stem)
 Coccoloba uvifera

 Coccoloba diversifolia

 Triplaris cumingiana

 Polygonum sp.

 Homalocladium platycladium

 Polygonella robusta

 Eriogonium tomentosum

Rheum rhabarbarum (Rhubarb)
Family: Santalaceae (=Viscaceae)
 Phoradendrom leucocarpum (Mistletoe)

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